THE IBOM PULPIT©
Down-to-earth and bold commentaries about the Akwa Ibom State, and about Nigeria.
Send your articles about the technology for the AKS…. or simply write your comments about posted materials. You may post articles below or send to: email@example.com.
Wind Energy Generation – Clean, Efficient and Renewable
Inside A Wind Turbine
A wind turbine works basically opposite of the fan; it converts the kinetic energy in wind into electricity while the fan converts electricity into wind. There are two kinds – the vertical axis and the horizontal axis wind generators. Wind turbines (wind farms capable of generating large amounts of electricity have multiple turbines) work best in plain fields with at least 14 miles per hour wind speed. More detailed materials are available for AKSG and LGA decision makers to consider as follows: Technology viability; Technology use; and FAQs.
The video below presents the building of a wind turbine at a US college campus:
The sole purpose of this commentary is to present a viable alternative energy generation technology that can efficiently boost the AKS Ibom Power Plant energy generation capacity when completed in March 2008. Despite the 685MW gas-fired power station primarily built to supply electricity to refineries and other planned heavy industrial projects, more energy will be needed to satisfy present and ever growing energy demand from households, educational institutions, and several commercial users.
Therefore, AKS must make additional plans for complimentary means of power generation as a back-up energy strategy to satisfy anticipated increase in demand when the proposed statewide industrialization policy properly kicks in.
Worth considering are various forms of solar energy to provide for household and commercial demands in the state. TIP strongly recommends the wind energy alternative, which is a clean and efficient form of renewable solar energy capable of servicing millions of households. It is the fastest growing energy generation technology in the world. In 2002, global capacity reached 31,000 MW. In the US, the growth rate has been consistently over 24% per year.
To ease or remove the burden of rural electrication programs from AKSG, local government areas should individually, or in groups, embark upon the purchase of turbines for wind farms to serve local communities. With newer and better related technologies emerging, wind energy is the sure wave of the future.
There are advantages and disadvantages of using the wind turbine technology as follows (Source: US Department of Energy):
Nigeria’s Energy Crisis
Nigeria (AKS also) has a perennial energy crisis. Although power and energy combine as a key item in his seven point agenda, President Yar’Adua, like his predecessor – Olusegun Obasanjo, has been figuring out what to adopt and implement as a workable energy policy. Despite billions of dollars already invested over three decades, meeting our daily energy needs is a major challenge.
There seems no end in sight! The Nigeria leadership has no grip of possible solutions for the corruption ridden sector also notorious for lacking a maintenance culture. President Yar’Adua appears frustrated with the energy crisis, and has threatened to declare an energy emergency in the country. He is known to be courting foreign countries and corporations for help.
Nigeria’s three hydro-based stations and five thermal stations have approximately 5,900 MW of installed electric generating capacity. However, about 1600 MW is currently generated because of very poor maintenance culture. While boosting to a target 85% is set for 2010, only 10 % of rural households, and approximately 40 % of Nigeria’s total population currently have access to electricity. Two years left before the target date, Nigeria continues to face a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants.
In addition to multiple rural electrification projects embarked upon by various state governments and by numerous non-governmental organizations (NGO), the federal government is hoping to increase foreign participation in the electric power sector, and is looking for independent power producers to generate and sell electricity to NEPA.
Below are pointed actions taken to meet the national energy demands:
- In October 2000, NEPA signed a partnership agreement with South Africa’s Eskom to help improve electricity supply, help develop NEPA’s repair capabilities, execute transmission line projects, and participate in rehabilitating, operate and transfer (ROT) schemes for the running of Nigeria’s power stations.
- In December 2001, Shell was awarded a 15-year ROT contract for units 1-4 of the Afam power plant and a lease operate and transfer contract for Afam’s fifth unit. Shell will refurbish the Afam power plant at a cost of about $ 500 mm, and with capacity expanding from 400 MW to 900 MW.
- In November 2002, the Obasanjo government awarded contracts for three 335-MW gas-fired plants, valued at $ 1.1 billion. China’s CMEC will build the facility at Okitipupa in Ondo State. A second plant, to be built another Chinese firm, SEPCO, will be located at Papalanto in Ogun State. Siemens, now sidelined because of a massive bribery scandal involving top government officials, was to build the plant at Ajaokuta in Kogi state.
- Recently, NEPA was privatized. The new companies created from NEPA have not demonstration any determination to help the energy crisis. While electricity transmission network remains a single entity, generation sector was split into six independent companies. Few companies were created from NEPA’s distribution operations.
- Currently, constructions of Independent Power Plants (IPP) in various states have been approved to stabilize current generating capabilities and sell electricity to the federal government. Some have been commissioned while some are in various stages of construction. Overall, the following have been efforts to secure independent power plants:
- Lagos State: Signed agreement with ENRON to provide 90 MW – August 1999.
- Rivers State: Commissioned the Trans-Amadi turbine to provide 36 (expandable to 50) MW – October 2002. Other turbines at Eleme (20MW) and Omoku (40 MW) are at various stages of construction.
- The Nigerian government signed an agreement with Germany’s Siemens for the construction of a 276MW power plant in Port Harcourt – in August 2000.
- The government approved for ExxonMobil to build and operate a 388-MW plant near Bonny – December 2001.
- Swiss Company ABB was awarded a $40-million contract to construct a high voltage transmission line from the Shiroro hydroelectric facility to the 450-MW IPP facility in Abuja.
- Also in Abuja, a $7.7 million 15 megawatts power plant has been constructed. It is a joint venture project between the federal government of Nigeria and a consortium of engineering companies which includes Cummins Corporation and Geometric Power Corporation of the United States and an indigenous company Renatech Nigeria, Ltd.
- South Africa’s Eskom signed a partnership agreement with NEPA for the establishment of a coal-fired IPP plant in Enugu. The country’s largest generating facility has a planned capacity of 2,000 MW.
- ENI, an Italian oil and energy company, signed an agreement with the NNPC for 450 MW gas-fired power plant in Kwale, located in the Niger Delta.
- The federal government has signed two contracts with the United States based General Electric Company (GE) for the supply, installation and maintenance of five gas turbine plants to produce 2,016MW at a cost of $2.5 billion. The turbines are to be sited in the Niger Delta region at Eyan near Benin City, Sapele in Delta State, Gbariam/Ubie in Bayelsa State, Egbema in Imo State and Calabar
- AKS signed a N17 billion contract to build the Ibom Power Plant - a 685MW gas-fired power station. Gov. Godswill Akpabio is reportedly determined to complete the project as early as March 2008. So far, first phase of the project has been commissioned while 65% of cost owed the First Monument Bank has been paid.